There is a new challenge to face in the coming decades, the development of an efficient, safe,sustainable energy system which reduces the environmental impact. The development anddiffusion of renewable energy technologies is more than important, it is crucial for humankind, asGeorgescu Roegen emphasized it in the 70s (e.g. Georgescu 1976). Diffusion and R&D, as for allnew technologies, are linked in a positive feedback loop that requires diffusion to be high enough inorder to achieve real progress in R&D. The transition from fossil to renewable energy is not aseasy, there are many obstacles ahead. Renewable energies are well developed in recent years butare still resistant. In Italy it proceeds more slowly than expected, yet the area lends itself perfectly tosolar and wind power, and considering the benefits associated with the reduction of dependence,and regionalization of production, everything should lead to a serious political goal of increasingrenewable energy. This study reporting a brief history of the development of wind energy and thecurrent state of the art, and after analyzes the causes of slow development of wind energy. Wecompare different cases in the literature of installation of wind power in various countries,considering the behavior of people and institutions. The level of public acceptance is a primaryindicator of support for spreading a pattern of energy which is alternative to the existing one; thereis strong worldwide public support for wind power, but the case study examined shows thatconcrete projects are partly suffering the NIMBY syndrome (Not In My Backyard), and partlyinfluenced by institutional factors. The study of these factors is done by comparing six case studiesin the existing literature regarding the installation of Wind power in several countries: Germany,Netherlands, US, UK, Sweden, Spain and a new Italian case. This paper examines a new case offailure of a participatory process for building a wind farm in Apulia, Italy. The comparison withother case studies in some states known as the institutional framework was more favorable for thedevelopment of wind energy, with high levels of support, stability and certainty of promotionprograms in Italy instead of a number of obstacles must be removed, very long procedures for permits, construction and grid connection of wind farms. In Italy energyproduction, is subject to concurrent legislation, state / regions, then legislation is up to the latter onthe basis of the principles set by the central government; but regions decide in agreement with localauthorities which sometimes create a series of obstacles hiding themselves behind the NIMBY butin reality they are incompetent and incapable of planning . Finally, we must consider the politicaland economical interests at stake, let's not forget that the new energies are a threat to theestablished technology and thus to those businesses or people who have invested in them. Thepopulation involved in the first instance, having made a favorable response to the construction of awind farm, is no longer taken into account when making a decision. In conclusion, we show thatthe institutional constraints are more important than public acceptance. What is really need is tobuild up institutional capital: knowledge resources, relational resources, and the capacity formobilisation( Wolsink 1999).

PUBBLIC ATTITUDES VS. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKS IN DIFFUSION OF WIND ENERGY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LITERATURE AND FROM AN ITALIAN CASE STUDY.

LAURETI, LUCIO
2012

Abstract

There is a new challenge to face in the coming decades, the development of an efficient, safe,sustainable energy system which reduces the environmental impact. The development anddiffusion of renewable energy technologies is more than important, it is crucial for humankind, asGeorgescu Roegen emphasized it in the 70s (e.g. Georgescu 1976). Diffusion and R&D, as for allnew technologies, are linked in a positive feedback loop that requires diffusion to be high enough inorder to achieve real progress in R&D. The transition from fossil to renewable energy is not aseasy, there are many obstacles ahead. Renewable energies are well developed in recent years butare still resistant. In Italy it proceeds more slowly than expected, yet the area lends itself perfectly tosolar and wind power, and considering the benefits associated with the reduction of dependence,and regionalization of production, everything should lead to a serious political goal of increasingrenewable energy. This study reporting a brief history of the development of wind energy and thecurrent state of the art, and after analyzes the causes of slow development of wind energy. Wecompare different cases in the literature of installation of wind power in various countries,considering the behavior of people and institutions. The level of public acceptance is a primaryindicator of support for spreading a pattern of energy which is alternative to the existing one; thereis strong worldwide public support for wind power, but the case study examined shows thatconcrete projects are partly suffering the NIMBY syndrome (Not In My Backyard), and partlyinfluenced by institutional factors. The study of these factors is done by comparing six case studiesin the existing literature regarding the installation of Wind power in several countries: Germany,Netherlands, US, UK, Sweden, Spain and a new Italian case. This paper examines a new case offailure of a participatory process for building a wind farm in Apulia, Italy. The comparison withother case studies in some states known as the institutional framework was more favorable for thedevelopment of wind energy, with high levels of support, stability and certainty of promotionprograms in Italy instead of a number of obstacles must be removed, very long procedures for permits, construction and grid connection of wind farms. In Italy energyproduction, is subject to concurrent legislation, state / regions, then legislation is up to the latter onthe basis of the principles set by the central government; but regions decide in agreement with localauthorities which sometimes create a series of obstacles hiding themselves behind the NIMBY butin reality they are incompetent and incapable of planning . Finally, we must consider the politicaland economical interests at stake, let's not forget that the new energies are a threat to theestablished technology and thus to those businesses or people who have invested in them. Thepopulation involved in the first instance, having made a favorable response to the construction of awind farm, is no longer taken into account when making a decision. In conclusion, we show thatthe institutional constraints are more important than public acceptance. What is really need is tobuild up institutional capital: knowledge resources, relational resources, and the capacity formobilisation( Wolsink 1999).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12572/1692
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