Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), known as the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype, is characterized by high clinical and biological heterogeneity. The tumor microenvironment (TME), in which the tumor cells reside, is crucial in the regulation of tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis, but it also has profound effects on therapeutic efficacy. The role of immune cells during DLBCL development is complex and involves reciprocal interactions between tumor cells, adaptive and innate immune cells, their soluble mediators and structural components present in the tumor microenvironment. Different immune cells are recruited into the tumor microenvironment and exert distinct effects on tumor progression and therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we focused on the role of macrophages, Neutrophils, T cells, natural killer cells and dendritic cells in the DLBCL microenvironment and their implication as target for DLBCL treatment. These new therapies, carried out by the induction of adaptive immunity through vaccination or passive of immunologic effectors delivery, enhance the ability of the immune system to react against the tumor antigens inducing the destruction of tumor cells.
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