Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are the most common types of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and are highly heterogeneous in terms of phenotype and treatment response. The natural course of DLBCLs tumor progression is featured by a flow of events leading to the enhancement of proliferative and invasive capabilities and, therefore, towards the establishment of a more aggressive phenotype. Angiogenesis is a constant hallmark of DLBCLs progression, has prognostic potential and promote DLBCLs dissemination. The study of DLBCLs angiogenesis mechanisms, and the tumor endothelium characterization, will allow us to identify new prognostic/predictive biomarkers to proper patient selection to antiangiogenic treatment. In our previous work, by RNAscope technology, we have demonstrated that Janus kinase (Jak) and signal transducer activator of transcription pathway (STAT) is one of the proangiogenic pathways activated in DLBCLs and it drives neoangiogenesis occurred by vasculogenesis mechanism. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to perform RNAscope technology alone and in combination with immunohistochemistry (called dual RNAscope ISH–IHC) in DLBCLs formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. We propose dual ISH–IHC as an extremely powerful method to study angiogenesis in DLBCLs, because it allows one to answer important biological questions that are difficult to address using other single methods.
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