: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that exhibits a rapid doubling time, a high growth fraction, and the early development of widespread metastases. The addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to first-line chemotherapy represents the first significant improvement of systemic therapy in several decades. However, in contrast to its effects on non-SCLC, the advantageous effects of immunotherapy addition are modest in SCLC. In particular, only a small number of SCLC patients benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Additionally, biomarkers selection is lacking for SCLC, with clinical trials largely focusing on unselected populations. Here, we review the data concerning the major biomarkers for immunotherapy, namely, programmed death ligand 1 expression and tumour mutational burden. Furthermore, we explore other potential biomarkers, including the role of the immune microenvironment in SCLC, the role of genetic alterations, and the potential links between neurological paraneoplastic syndromes, serum anti-neuronal nuclear antibodies, and outcomes in SCLC patients treated with immunotherapy.

What Are the Biomarkers for Immunotherapy in SCLC?

Annese, Tiziana;
2021

Abstract

: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that exhibits a rapid doubling time, a high growth fraction, and the early development of widespread metastases. The addition of immune checkpoint inhibitors to first-line chemotherapy represents the first significant improvement of systemic therapy in several decades. However, in contrast to its effects on non-SCLC, the advantageous effects of immunotherapy addition are modest in SCLC. In particular, only a small number of SCLC patients benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Additionally, biomarkers selection is lacking for SCLC, with clinical trials largely focusing on unselected populations. Here, we review the data concerning the major biomarkers for immunotherapy, namely, programmed death ligand 1 expression and tumour mutational burden. Furthermore, we explore other potential biomarkers, including the role of the immune microenvironment in SCLC, the role of genetic alterations, and the potential links between neurological paraneoplastic syndromes, serum anti-neuronal nuclear antibodies, and outcomes in SCLC patients treated with immunotherapy.
SCLC
SCLC-I subtype
biomarkers
programmed death ligand 1
serum anti-neuronal nuclear antibodies
tumour microenvironment
tumour mutational burden
Animals
Biomarkers, Pharmacological
Biomarkers, Tumor
Humans
Lung Neoplasms
Mutation Accumulation
Prognosis
Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
Treatment Outcome
Immunotherapy
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12572/8724
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
social impact