: Lymphomas are characteristic tumors surrounded by an inflammatory microenvironment. The cells of the microenvironment are essential for the growth and survival of neoplastic cells and are recruited through the effect of cytokines/chemokines. Lymphomas include heterogeneous groups of neoplasms infiltrating various lymphoid structures which may arise from B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells at various stages of their differentiation state. In this review article, we analyze the literature data concerning the involvement of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in the progression of lymphomas and the recent advances in the analysis of microenvironment components in the most common forms: some mature B cell lymphoma neoplasms and classic Hodgkin lymphomas. The complex crosstalk between the TME and tumor cells led to the discovery of many mechanisms usable as molecular-targeted therapy through the control of diverse elements of the TME, varying from inhibitors of angiogenic cytokines and their receptors to the regulation of cells' activities and the novel immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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